© Matthieu Lapinski Ailerons
All life on Earth depends on our ocean
Europe’s seas include some of the most intensively used marine waters in the world and remain threatened by a range of factors including overfishing, pollution and cumulative pressure on marine ecosystems from increased human activities.
In recent years, many European policies have been adopted to manage human activities at sea and secure the protection of marine wildlife and habitats. However, many of these policies remain to be fully implemented and the European Union failed to achieve its objective for good environmental status of European seas by 2020.

"To take effective climate and biodiversity action, the EU must uphold its commitments to sustainability, nature protection and viable fisheries to secure a healthy and resilient ocean."

Dr Antonia Leroy
Head of Ocean Policy
+32 485 69 20 85

© Misjel Decleer
What WWF is doing
WWF is working with the European Union institutions, Member States and the private sector to deliver healthy marine ecosystems, resilient fisheries, a balance between maritime activities and nature, and a sustainable blue economy.

The EPO draws on the WWF European network’s field experiences to call for environmentally robust and evidence-based policies for sustainable ocean governance. 

To ensure a sustainable relationship with our ocean and to effectively protect our seas, marine ecosystems and biodiversity, we:
  • Take action across all levels of governance, including the public and private sector, to promote sustainable fishing practices that guarantee the social, economic and environmental resilience of fisheries and which minimises impacts on the marine environment;
  • Advocate for better implementation and monitoring of European legislation to end illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (the IUU Regulation).
  • Advocate for ambitious control rules which strengthen and enforce fisheries legislation to make EU fishing practices more sustainable and transparent 
  • Promote the creation of an ecologically coherent network of Marine Protected Areas and their proper management;
  • Promote an ecosystem-based approach to the maritime spatial plans that are adopted by European Member States;
  • Advocate for a sustainable deployment of offshore renewable energy which balances environmental protection and socio-economic needs;
  • Influence investment decisions within the maritime sector to be founded on the most sustainable blue economy pathways possible.


Dr Antonia Leroy
Head of Ocean Policy
+32 485 69 20 85

Laure Guillevic
Ocean Policy Officer

Dr Aleksandre Gogaladze
Ocean Policy Officer

Louis Lambrechts
Ocean Policy Officer

Helena Rodrigues
Ocean Policy Officer
+32 492 33 00 08

Larissa Milo-Dale
Senior Communications Officer, Marine
+32 483 26 20 86

Policy timeline

Ocean 2023

  • By end of June 2024: European Council adopts the EU Nature Restoration Law
  • By end of June 2024: European Commission publishes its assessment of implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive

Latest Ocean News

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Latest report

© WWF European Policy Office

WWF analyses of 16 coastal Member States' maritime strategies reveal none are on course to meet EU climate and nature goals

Continued failure to adopt an ecosystem-based approach to Maritime Spatial Planning will make it increasingly difficult for the EU and its neighbours to overcome the impacts of climate change.

WWF is calling for all EU Member States to ensure their maritime spatial plans secure sufficient space for nature to recover and thrive. This includes leaving offshore renewable energy development out of MPAs and establishing transboundary cooperation between Member States to reduce harmful impacts to nature from this type of infrastructure.

It is crucial for national plans to not only dedicate more space to nature via effectively managed MPAs that cover at least 30% of national waters, with at least 10% under strict protection, but also adopt a regional approach to monitoring the cumulative impacts of all human activities.

Finally, stakeholders must be involved and consulted in all phases of MSP, with national plans covering all sea areas and continuously adapted as new data becomes available and new pieces of legislation come into force.

Policy briefs & Position papers
Delivering a framework for sustainable blue food in the EU (April 2024)
PDF 4.63 MB
From niche to norm: Setting sail for low-impact fisheries in the EU (December 2023)
PDF 6.50 MB
Joint marine NGO position paper on the Nature Restoration Law (November 2022)
PDF 2.52 MB
Position paper: Accelerating offshore wind deployment in a nature friendly way (August 2022)
PDF 365 KB
Joint NGO position paper: The Untrawled Truth – Why EU fisheries policy should strengthen discard monitoring, control and reporting within an implemented landing obligation (April 2022)
PDF 256 KB
Joint policy brief: Splash out (the right way). 15 Recommendations for spending the European Maritime Fisheries and Aquaculture Fund (November 2021)
PDF 451 KB
Position paper: Nature protection and offshore renewable energy in the EU (May 2021)
PDF 1.45 MB
Guidance paper: Ecosystem-based maritime spatial planning in Europe and how to assess it (March 2021)
PDF 2.25 MB
Seafood traceability: exemptions risk fuelling illegal fishing (January 2021)
PDF 10.77 MB
Joint Position Paper: Making SFPA evaluations more efficient (September 2020)
PDF 160 KB
Joint NGO policy brief: Advancing the Farm to Fork Strategy (September 2020)
PDF 1.30 MB
Joint NGO policy brief: Advancing the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 (September 2020)
PDF 1.37 MB
Turning the Tide on EU Seas with a Green Recovery (June 2020)
PDF 2.04 MB
Joint NGO Recommendations: 10 priorities for the future of Sustainable Fisheries Partnership Agreements (May 2020)
PDF 2.18 MB
Position paper: Achieving ecosystem-based maritime spatial plans (February 2020)
PDF 356 KB
Joint NGO position paper: Will the EU doom our ocean and fishers? (January 2020)
PDF 1.73 MB
Policy brief - International level: Mitigating Climate Change Impacts on Food Security from the Ocean (December 2019)
PDF 2.14 MB
Joint NGO position paper: Revision of the EU Fisheries Control System (November 2019)
PDF 902 KB
Policy Brief: Empowering women in marine communities to mitigate the impacts of climate change (September 2019)
PDF 16.48 MB
Policy brief - EU-level: Mitigating Climate Change Impacts on Food Security from the Ocean (June 2019)
PDF 8.42 MB
Joint NGO position paper: The effective transformation of the post-2020 EMFF (January 2019)
PDF 682 KB
Policy brief: A vision for achieving sustainable fisheries in Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (July 2018)
PDF 247 KB